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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2011年06月第17卷第3期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2011)03-0200-05
 
流行结构“被X”的语义、语用分析
 
曾丹,胡蝶
 
(江汉大学语言文学研究所,湖北武汉,430056;西华师范大学文学院,四川南充,637002)
 
摘  要: 流行结构“被X”是当代社会语言创新的产物。从语义特征上看,“被X”所表示的语义内容可能是对现实世界的真实反映,也可能与客观现实相背离。“被X”的施事多为具有强权或影响力的人或事物,而其受事通常是事件中的弱势对象。从语用色彩上看,“被X”结构多带有“不幸、不如意”的贬义色彩,只有少数带有中性或褒义色彩。“被X”结构的出现是内外因共同作用的结果。从语言的内部因素来看,传统“被”字结构的基本语义特征为新兴“被X”的诞生提供了前提条件和语义基础。语言的经济原则推动了“被X”的出现。从语言的外部因素来看,社会生活中出现的一些新现象造成了语言表达的空位,使得“被X”结构的出现成为一种必需。
 
关键字: 汉语流行结构;“被X”;语义分析;语用分析
 
 
A Semantic and Pragmatic Analysis of the Popular Structure “Bei X”
 
ZENG Dan, HU Die
 
(Institute of Language and Literature, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China;
College of Chinese Language and Literature, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002, China)
 
Abstract: Popular language structure “bei X” is a production of language innovation in contemporary society. In the view of the semantic features, the content of “bei X” is sometimes a true reflection of real world, yet sometimes it is not. The agents of “bei X” mostly are the persons or things having power or influence, and the patients of it are mostly the vulnerable subjects in the events. In the view of the pragmatic color, “bei X” usually has a derogatory sense of "unfortunate, unhappy". In very seldom time, it expresses neutral or complimentary sense. The appearance of “bei X” has both internal and external causes. From the perspective of the language internal factors, the basic semantic features of traditional “bei” structure provide the precondition and semantic foundation for “bei X”. And the economic principle of language promotes its emergence. From the perspective of the language external factors, the new phenomena of our social life cause the vacancy of the language expression, making the appearance of “bei X” structure necessary.
 
Key words: popular structure of Chinese; bei X; semantic analysis; pragmatic analysis
 
 
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