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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2011年08月第17卷第4期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2011)04-0036-06
 
罗尔斯正义理论拒斥功利主义的伦理反思
 
李建华,牛磊
 
(中南大学公共管理学院,湖南长沙,410083)
 
摘  要: 罗尔斯《正义论》的问世扭转了欧美上世纪初以来的逻辑推理和逻辑分析的伦理学传统,使伦理学重新回归到对现实问题的关注。他通过对传统的社会契约论的改造所提出的正义的两个原则旗帜鲜明地对长期占据统治地位的功利主义思想进行了驳斥。自由的优先性原则对自由权利的坚持必须着眼于个体权利的真正实现,差别原则表面上看是对弱者的偏爱,实际上却是着眼于人类整个政治共同体的合法性与正当合理性的维续,明确了正当对于善的优先性,驳斥了功利主义对个体自由的工具化倾向,并对善的分配方式给予了充分关注。
 
关键字: 罗尔斯;正义理论;契约理论;功利主义;自由权利;至善主义
 
 
The ethical thought of rejection of Rawls's ethical theory to utilitarianism
 
LI Jianhua, NIU Lei
 
(School of the Public Administration, CSU, Changsha 410083, China)
 
Abstract: The advent of "A Theory of Justice" by John Rawls reverses the ethical tradition, which lasted the last century in Europe and America, of the logical reasoning and logical analysis, and brings about the re-return to the real issues from the ethics. Two principles of justice that were proposed from the transformation of the traditional social contract theory sharply refuting the long-term dominant utilitarianism. The insistence on the freedom of the principle of freedom of the priority right must focus on the realization of the individual rights. The difference principle is outwardly the preference to the weak, but it actually focuses on the legitimacy of the human community and the political legitimacy of the continuation, makes clear the priority of the legitimacy for the good, refutes the tendency of the instrumentalism of the utilitarianism to the individual freedom, and pays full attention to the distribution of the good.
 
Key words: Theory of Justice; Contract Theory; Utilitarianism; Freedom; Perfectionism
 
 
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