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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2013年12月第19卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2013)06-0142-05
 
以人文主义对抗整体主义
——论波普尔对柏拉图正义观的批判
 
罗雪飞
 
(武汉大学政治与公共管理学院,湖北武汉,430072)
 
摘  要: 波普尔认为柏拉图的极权主义政治纲领可以表述为相互关联的两个最基本的方面:第一是阻止所有的政治变革,第二是回归到自然中去;其政治要求则分为两个层次,就其最基本的方面而言,主要指严格的阶级区分与统治阶级的优越地位,而从这两个基本要求中又派生出统治阶级垄断保卫职责、教育审查以及国家自给自足等三个方面的要求。在此基础上,波普尔批判了柏拉图的整体主义的正义概念,建构了人文主义的正义概念;批判了柏拉图所主张的包括自然特权原则、普遍的集体主义原则以及个人对国家的责任的原则在内的整体主义正义原则,建构了包括彻底的均等原则、普遍的个人主义原则以及国家和政府保护公民自由的原则在内的人文主义正义原则。
 
关键字: 波普尔;柏拉图;正义观;人文主义;整体主义
 
 
Humanism against holism——Popper’s critique of Plato’s idea of justice
 
LUO Xuefei
 
(School of Political Science and Public Administration, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China)
 
Abstract: In Popper’s opinion, Plato’s platform of totalitarianism can be expressed in two related fundamental aspects: the first one is that all the political changes should be prevented, the second one is that people should go back to the nature. Plato’s political demands included two levels, the most basic demand mainly referred to strict class divisions and the superior position of the ruling class, the derivative demand consisted of guard duty monopolized by the ruling class, educational observation, and self-sufficiency of the nation. On this basis, Popper critiqued Plato’s concept of holism justice, and constructed the concept of humanism justice; and he critiqued Plato's holism principle of justice, which consisted of the principle of natural privilege, the general principle of collectivism, and the principle of personal responsibility for the country, and constructed the humanism principle of justice, which consisted of the principle of complete equality, the general principle of individualism, and the principle of the state and government should protect civil liberties.
 
Key words: Popper; Plato; idea of justice; humanism; holism
 
 
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