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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2013年12月第19卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2013)06-0224-06
 
商周时期正坐的起源及仪规
 
李为香
 
(济南大学历史与文化产业学院,山东济南,250022)
 
摘  要: 商周时期的正坐姿势,实源于三代祖先祭祀仪式中的“尸祭”。尸祭之坐法称为“尸坐”,由尸坐演化而为“坐如尸”,显示出受祭之尸坐到“君子”之坐的空间变化,意为君子之坐应当效仿“尸坐”严肃、安定之姿势。在考古实物中,那些躬身扶膝的坐式人像可能都是坐而受祭的祖先神灵象征,而非大而化之的巫师像。到周代时,神灵受祭之正坐逐渐从神坛走下来,延伸而为贵族的生活仪式。正坐遂成为贵族社会圈子内的体面性正式坐姿,用于会客、宴饮仪式当中。“正坐”作为一种极其重要的礼仪姿势,在虚坐、食坐、坐向、坐席、几杖之设等诸多方面都有极为严格的约束。
 
关键字: 商周时期;正坐;尸祭;神灵受祭
 
 
On the formal sitting of Shang and Zhou Dynasties
 
LI Weixiang
 
(History Department, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China)
 
Abstract: The formal sitting of Shang and Zhou Dynasties originated from the “Shi Ji” of ancestor worship ceremony. To be from “Shi Ji” to sitting like “Shi” meant spatial variation, whose meaning was that the gentlemen should sit seriously and unchangeably. In the archaeological objects, the quiet-sitting figures were possibly ancestor gods accepting the sacrifice, not ordinary wizards. In Zhou Dynasties, formal sitting went down from the sacred temple and became the living ritual of noblemen, which was widely used in dinner party and visit. There were very strict rules in formal sitting such as sitting for food or not, orientation, cushion, table and rod.
 
Key words: Shang and Zhou Dynasties; formal sitting; Shi Ji; ancestor worship ceremony
 
 
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