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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2015年04月第21卷第2期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2015)02-0025-07
 
休谟的保守主义理性观
 
刘洋
 
(山东大学(威海)法学院,山东威海,264209)
 
摘  要: 如何看待理性问题是现代政治哲学的核心问题,也是把握休谟保守主义思想的关键。启蒙理性是休谟论述理性问题的思想背景和重要对照。启蒙理性认为理性在本体论上是主观、自足与至上的,在认知过程上是抽象的。理性的认知结果在实践上构成人类行为的规范律令。启蒙理性是现代激进主义背后的思想动力。而休谟则认为,理性在本体论上并不自足,在认知过程中依赖于习惯,其认知结论需不断渐进调整。在实践上,理性并非人类行为规范的指导。休谟事实上提出了与启蒙理性截然不同的理性观念,休谟独具特色的理性观是其保守主义的理论基础。在理性观重构的基础上,休谟为保守主义提供了世俗性论证,为尊重传统进行了系统辩护,为将审视政治的视角从“应然”转向“实然”开辟了道路。休谟是“有理性”的保守主义的先驱。
 
关键字: 休谟;启蒙理性;理性;保守主义
 
 
The view of reason in Hume’s conservatism
 
LIU Yang
 
(Law School, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai 264209, China)
 
Abstract: Reason is the core issue of modern political philosophy, and is also the key for us to grasp Hume’s conservative thought. Hume discusses the issue of reason in the background and comparison of enlightening reason, which believes that reason is ontologically subjective, self-contained and supreme, and is abstract in the cognitive process. The rational cognition results constitute the laws of human behavior in practice. Enlightenment reason is the driven idea behind modern radicalism. And Hume argues that reason is not sufficient in the ontology, dependent on the habit in the process of cognition, and their cognitive conclusions need to be constantly gradual adjustment. In practice, reason is not the guidance of the rules of human behavior. Hume’s view of reason is the logical foundation of his unique conservatism. On the basis of reconstructing reason, Hume gives secular argument for conservatism, carries defense systematically to respect the tradition, and paves the way to examine the political perspective from “ought” to “reality”. In short, Hume is the precursor of conservatism with reason.
 
Key words: Hume; enlightenment reason; reason; conservatism
 
 
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