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中南大学学报(社会科学版)
ZHONGNAN DAXUE XUEBAO(SHEHUI KEXUE BAN)

2015年12月第21卷第6期
   
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文章编号:1672-3104(2015)06-0123-06
 
霸权转移中的大国心态调整——以二战后英美在中东的权力交接为例
 
刘明周
 
(中南财经政法大学政治学系,湖北武汉,430074)
 
摘  要: 经济实力决定着霸权演变的发展趋势,但在特定背景下,官方心态对霸权转移的影响也不容忽视。二战之后,通过遏制前苏联确保自身的大国地位是英国政府的重要政策,英国为此在中东维持排他性的霸主地位,信心满满是英国大国心态的典型特征。在民族主义者的激烈反对下,在美国的战略挤压下,英国通过向外界展示其主导地位证明自己在中东的霸权,信心不足的焦虑性成为英国大国心态的新特征。在英国与民族主义者决裂时,英国试图绕过美国,用孤注一掷的方式宣示英国的霸权,非生既死的冒险性成为英国大国心态的新表现。在冒险失败后,英国承认了美国的冷战大局,中东霸主的权力交接基本完成。英国在中东的大国心态调整表明,霸权转移也是一种心态调整的主观过程。
 
关键字: 英国;大国心态;霸权转移;中东;美国;苏伊士运河危机
 
 
Adjustment of the power mind in hegemonic transfer: Taking the power transfer between UK and US in the Middle East after WWII for example
 
LIU Mingzhou
 
(Department of Politics, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430074, China)
 
Abstract: Although the trend of the hegemonic transfer can be determined by economic capacity, official mind under the special context plays an important role in the process. After WWII, ensuring UK’s world position by containing Soviet Union was Whitehall’s important policy. British government was determined to maintain its exclusive hegemonic position in the Middle East, and being filled with confidence was the typical feature of British official mind. Under the pressure of the nationalists’ challenge and the strategy of the US, UK tried to prove its hegemony by showing its leading position in the area, and anxiety without confidence was UK’s new feature. When breaking with nationalists, UK tried to show its hegemony by risking everything on a single venture, and gambling became the new characteristic. When the adventure failed, UK recognized the priority of the Cold War of the US, and the hegemonic transfer in the Middle East was basically completed. British adjustment in official mind reveals that hegemonic transfer is also a kind of subjective process in which official mind changes.
 
Key words: UK; great power mentality; hegemonic transfer; the Middle East; USA; Suez canal crisis
 
 
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